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T h e major benefits of the 3 - D m o d e will therefore be in the low activity range generic 12.5 mg coreg mastercard arrhythmia classification. Typically, the scatter fraction increases from 1 0 - 1 5 % to about 3 0 - 4 0 % depending upo n the energy threshold level. For attenuation correction, traditional transmission coincidence measurement using a rotating rod source is not adequate in the 3 - D m o d e , and a technique using a single photon transmission measurement has been developed using a rotating point source. T h e point source m a y be a positron emitter, such as 68G e - 68Ga, or a long life g a m m a ray source, such as 137C s [21]. M o s t of the current 3 - D P E T scanners have retractable slice septa, as s h o w n in Fig. A n Nal(Tl) based P E T scanner ( G E Q E S T , developed b y U G M Medical Systems) is the first septa-less 3 - D P E T scanner [22]. T h e detector system consists of six rectangular g a m m a cameras arranged hex- agonally. T h e advantage of the Nal(Tl) detector is its high energy resolution and, accordingly, better rejection capability for scatter events. A brain P E T scanner using a single annular NaI(Tl) crystal has also been developed [23]. Dedicated animal P E T scanners With the progress of P E T technology, there is an increasing need for P E T scanners dedicated to animal studies. T h e size of the F O V and the spatial resolution depend on the species of animals to be studied. T h e mechanical or geometric specifi­ cations should match the habits of the animals. For example, dogs are usually posi­ tioned on their side, rabbits are positioned on their stomach and m o n k e y s prefer a sitting position o n a chair with a suitable headrest. A n animal P E T scanner ( H a m a m a t s u m o d e l S H R - 2 0 0 0 ) is designed for the imaging of animals of m e d i u m size u p to m o n k e y s [24]. T h e detector is a single ring consisting of 15 block detectors and the inner diameter is 35 cm. E a c h block detector consists of a 3 inch square P S - P M T 3 and a B G O block segmented in a 4 x 8 array. E a c h block detector contains a 25 x 54 x 30 m m block of B G O seg­ mented into a 6 x 8 array of crystal elements (3. A n example is H a m m e r s m i t h ’s R A T P E T [26], which consists of 16 B G O detector blocks, each with a 23 x 50 x 30 m m B G O segmented into a 7 x 8 array arranged to give a tomograph with a ring diameter of 115 m m and an axial F O V of 50 m m. S U M M A R Y T h e current status of instrumentation for S P E C T and P E T has been reviewed. In both modes, m u c h effort has been m a d e to increase detection sensitivity by 3 - D data acquisition by the use of cone b e a m or m o r e sophisticated 3 - D collimation in S P E C T , or by 3 - D data acquisition in P E T. Howev e r , the fully 3 - D image recon­ struction and data correction for the attenuation and scatter of photons in the 3 - D m o d e are still in the development stage. Further w o r k is needed o n quantitation issues to reach the goal of septa-less 3 - D P E T.

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The locations of positron emission and annihilation are separated by the effective range of the positron (Fig discount 12.5mg coreg otc arteria profunda brachii. This error Rp increases with the positron energy and decreases with 18 the tissue density. Positrons at the end of their range still possess some resid- ual momentum and, therefore, the two annihilation photons are not emitted exactly 180°, but at slight deviation. This value deteriorates with the diameter of the ring and is estimated to be Ra = 0. Positrons travel a distance before annihilation in the absorber and the distance increases with positron energy. Because positrons with different energies travel in zigzag directions, the effective range is the shortest distance between the nucleus and the direction of 511-keV photons. Because there is some residual momentum associated with the positron, the two annihilation photons are not emitted exactly at 180°, but at a slight deviation from 180°. Two detectors detect these photons in a straight line, which is slightly deviated from the original annihi- lation line. If the filter backprojection method is used for reconstruction, the choice of filter with a selected cut-off frequency degrades spatial resolution. The use of block detectors rather than single detectors introduces an error in the (X, Y) positioning of the detector pair, which causes degradation of the spatial resolution. Positron Emission Tomography The transaxial spatial resolution typically ranges from 5mm to 7mm at 10 cm and the axial spatial resolution from 5. Commercial vendors give this in units of volume sensitivity, kcps/mCi/cc or cps/Bq/cc. Sensitivity depends on the geometric efficiency, detection efficiency of the detector, pulse-height window, and dead time of the detector. These factors have been discussed in detail in Chapter 10 for conventional cameras. The geometric efficiency depends on the distance d between the detector and the source, the diam- eter D of the ring, and the number of rings n in the scanner. Increasing the distance d and the diameter D reduces the solid angle subtended by the detector at the source and, thus, decreases the geometric efficiency. Noise Equivalent Count Rate As discussed in Chapter 10 under contrast, noise degrades the image con- trast and primarily arises from the statistical variation of the count rates. It is mounted on the patient table and centered both vertically and horizontally in the field of view. This arrangement allows uniform exposure to radiations of all detectors to provide a uniform sino- gram. Initially, a reference blank sinogram is obtained during the last setup of the scanner.